Liliana Bachs, MD, Senior Medical Officer at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, wrote in a Nov. 28, 2005 email to

“Causality is a difficult assessment in forensic toxicology. It is often an ‘exclusion diagnosis,’ and so it is in our cases. I’m therefore not sure about how to classify those deaths.

At the time I published that study [see above] I would probably not classify [the cannabis] as primary causation because it was not broadly accepted that [a death from cannabis] could occur at all. Today I see reports coming all the time that acknowledge cannabis cardiovascular risks, and the situation may be different.”

Nov. 28, 2005