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Fiona Campbell, MD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto, et al., concluded in their study titled "Are Cannabinoids an Effective and Safe Treatment Option in the Management of Pain? A Qualitative Systematic Review," published July 7, 2001 in the British Medical Journal:

“Cannabinoids are no more effective than codeine in controlling pain and have depressant effects on the central nervous system that limit their use. Their widespread introduction into clinical practice for pain management is therefore undesirable. In acute postoperative pain they should not be used…

The best that can be achieved with single dose cannabis in nociceptive pain [pain resulting from tissue damage] is analgesia equivalent to single dose codeine 60 mg, which rates poorly on relative efficacy compared with non¬≠steroidal anti¬≠inflammatory drugs or simple analgesics. Increasing the cannabinoid dose to increase the analgesia will increase adverse effects…

We found insufficient evidence to support the introduction of cannabinoids into widespread clinical practice for pain management.”

July 7, 2001